Generally standardisation falls into two activities:
The primary purpose of a standard is to allow interoperability between 2 or more competing implementations in a market.
The standards lifecycle is perhaps best described in the ETSI Making Better Standards website although there are other guides to developing standards available. Standards apply to all the parts of the product development and deployment lifecycle and cover hardware, software, and communications protocols from birth of an idea to the disposal of the product at the end of its life.
This page gives a brief summary of the activities of those standardisation bodies of relevance to i-SCOPE and how i-SCOPE as a project will introduce material to standards and then progress the standards towards publication.
i-SCOPE's standards needs are varied and complex. One of the goals of the i-SCOPE project is that i-SCOPE will implemented using open standards where possible.
The main areas where i-SCOPE will use and influence standards are as follows:
|GiS systems||CEN TC287 Open Geospatial Consortium||Ensuring that the smart city data models are available in the core GiS specifications (i.e. the intent is that i-SCOPE will use only standardised variants of CityGML and GML).|
|Machine to machine||ETSI M2M||The bulk of i-SCOPE's scenarios for sensor interaction are in the wider scope of machine to machine communication forming a subset of the wider Internet-of-things. The intent here is to monitor and guide if necessary any activity to ensure that as i-SCOPE develops it is able to leverage the industry investments in M2M and IoT. The project will ensure that developments in the global standards partnership (oneM2M) will be made visible and any contributions will be made through ETSI.|
|Privacy and Security||ETSI MTS ITU-T SG17 ETSI E2NA ISO SC27.5 ETSI ITS ISO TC204||This is a complex area where commonality of approach to security and privacy analysis is vital. The aim is to influence the further development of TVRA and PIA methods in ETSI and other bodies such that we can show that i-SCOPE has followed best practice in the analysis activities. Furthermore i-SCOPE is expected to deploy standardised countermeasures and thus should adopt and influence work in these bodies on consent and authorisation frameworks, on federated identity and on data protection.|
|Telecommunications network requirements||ETSI E2NA Plus liaison to 3GPP & IETF||i-SCOPE is a source of traffic to networks in areas where networks are already congested. The nature of the traffic generated by i-SCOPE may require specific routing or other handling by networks to ensure that i-SCOPE is not penalised from operation by the operators of networks, nor should i-SCOPE penalise other network users by denying service to them in times of congestion. The intent is to provide a report on the network interaction of smart-city services in general to the SDOs taking i-SCOPE use cases as source material.|
|Methods for standardisation||ETSI MTS and ITU-T SG17||Where i-SCOPE uses existing methods (e.g. UML) and where guidance and best practice is found to have been of use in the project the sharing of this advice through extension of the guidance (see for example ETSI's Making Better Standards site) is to be accomplished through these standards groups.|
|Interface design||Design-4-all ETSI TC HF||The aim in i-SCOPE is to be inclusive thus adopting accepted standards and codes of practice consistent with the "design for all" initiatives. In some instances there may be no accepted UI elements and where UI elements are developed that have potential for wider acceptance the i-SCOPE project will bring them to the attention of appropriate standards groups.|
The European regulatory authorities promote standardisation in support of the free movement of people, goods, and services within Europe. However the generation of wealth is not neccessarily assisted by open standardisation which creates a conflict in approaching new markets where a commitment to open-source is one of the banners of the project. It has to be understood that open-standards, and open source, do not imply free of cost. There are costs involved in making any product or service available to market and these have to be taken on board, the role of open source and open standards for i-SCOPE is to ensure that the advances made by possible through public funding are open to others to adopt.
It should be noted that there is ongoing debate on what constitutes an open-standard. Most of the major standards bodies implement a FRAND clause with respect to IPR in standards that requires that any IPR required to implement the standard is offered on a Fair, Reasonable and Non-Discriminatory basis. This is not open-source but does with most EU (CEN, CENELEC, ETSI) and international (ISO, ITU) and some forums (IETF, W3C, OASIS) allow for open access to standards with upfront identification of the IPR (although the costs are not known and now the concern of the SDOs).